Turkey's automotive sector topped the country's exports with $30.6 billion in 2019, while Istanbul was the largest exporter city in the country.
Overall exports increased 2% to reach $180.47 billion, hitting historical highs in 2019, according to data compiled by Anadolu Agency from the Turkish Exporters Assembly (TIM).
When main sectors are examined, the industry was the best performer with $138.25 billion, increasing 1.5% on an annual basis.
Agriculture and mining posted $23.39 and $4.31 billion exports, respectively.
Turkey's export routes exceeded 200 countries and free zones, while Germany was the main destination with $14.96 billion exports.
The U.K. ($10.75 billion), Italy ($9.46 billion), the U.S. ($7.89 billion) and Spain ($7.7 billion) followed Germany. These five countries' total share in Turkey's overall exports was 30.44% in 2019.
The biggest change was seen in the Falkland Islands, of which imports from Turkey jumped by 4811.8% year-on-year. Bahamas (2687.5%) and Macau (1693.3%) followed.
While Istanbul was the largest exporter city with $70.1 billion in Turkey last year, industrial provinces Kocaeli ($15.24 billion) and Bursa ($14.99 billion), Aegean city Izmir ($9.77 billion) and Ankara ($8.3 billion) were other major exporters.
The automotive sector posted a 3.1% decline in 2019 and stood at $30.6 billion. Around 76.5% of automotive exports were made to the EU countries.
Global automotive giants, such as Fiat, Renault, Hyundai, Ford, Mercedes and domestic firms, such as BMC, Karsan, Temsa produce different types of vehicles and export from Turkey to the world.
Chemicals and chemical products were the second-largest exporter with $20.57 billion foreign sales, up 18.6% on a yearly basis. Turkey exported chemicals mostly to European, Middle East and African countries.
Apparel had exports of $17.7 billion during the last year, posting a 0.4% annual increase. Germany and the Netherlands were the main destinations.
Steel was $13.86 billion, decreased rapidly by 10.6%, due mainly to U.S. additional tariffs on steel imports. European countries were the main routes.
Turkey's ferrous and non-ferrous metals exports were $8.12 billion in 2019, up 0.5%.
Agricultural exports ($23.39 billion) posted an increase of 3.4% in 2019, compared to the previous year.
Cereals, pulses, oilseeds and products exports reached $6.79 billion with an annual increase of 1.6%. The Middle East and African countries, especially Iraq, were the most importer countries.
Furniture, paper and forestry products posted a 10.3% increase to reach exports of $5.53 billion, while aqua and animal products exports stood at $2.51 billion, up 0.1%.
The country exported fresh fruit and vegetables worth $2.26 billion, increasing 2.8% compared to 2018. Russia's fruit and vegetable imports from Turkey amounted to $746.5 million.
Turkey, which is the largest hazelnut exporter globally, exported hazelnut and products worth $2.03 billion, jumping 24.5% year-on-year in 2019. Italy and Germany were the largest buyers.
Minerals, natural stones, metal ores and fuels exports ($4.3 billion) saw an annual decline of 5.5%. China was the main route.
The country's natural stones exports were $1.86 billion, decreasing 2.3%, according to Istanbul Minerals and Metals Exporters Association data.
Metal ores ($1.2 billion) and industrial minerals ($906.86 million) exports also dropped 8.14% and 7.62%, respectively.
Turkey's mining exports were mainly marble, travertine, borate, chrome, gold, silver and feldspar.
The country is also the world's largest marble exporter.
By Gokhan Ergocun